Definition: A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres referred to as thread or yarn.
Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton or other material to produce long strands.
Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting or pressing (felting) fibres together.Clothing bin collections in New Zealand
Clothing collection bins
The following national charitable organisations may accept clothing at their stores, or tell you if they have charity clothing bins in your location. (Also try Plunkett, local church city missions, hospices and other Opportunity Shop operators)
Textile recycling in New Zealand
Most textile recycling in New Zealand is carried out by Opportunity Shops, usually linked to churches or charities. Clothing that is suitable is put out for sale, or if not suitable the buttons and zips are removed for re-use. The remaining textiles are divided into natural and synthetic fibres, with natural fibres made into rags or art paper and sold to industry as cleaning cloths or can be composted, whilst synthetics are dumped to landfills - another good reason to shop for natural fibres!
Recycling wool in NZ
Terra Lana, a New Zealand manufacturer, uses wool recycled from carpet manufacturing, some new wool and polyester, to make a range of insulation products, including ceiling, wall and underfloor insulation, plumbing and acoustic insulation, weed mats and furniture-moving blankets.
Try organic bamboo or organic GOTS-certified cotton clothing made in New Zealand for babies and toddlers from greenbean, or Greenfields Trading stocks children’s clothes made form Fairtrade certified organic cotton.
Children and parents love colourful clothes, but how much do you know about how and where they are made? Read a blog on environmental impacts of textiles and some possible responses
For materials and wool sources, try organic merino and organic cotton knitted and coloured in New Zealand by Belle and Beau or for homeware materials, haberdashery and children’s and adults’ fashions, try ecofabric.
The on-line retailer Well Made specialise in natural fabrics, in minimising waste and highlighting other values.
The environmental effects of textile fibre production are highly significant globally:
- water use: It can take 2,700 litres of water to produce enough cotton for one T-shirt.
- land desertified downstream of commodity farming e.g. the destruction of the Aral Sea as water upstream was diverted to cotton and rice farms,
- chemical dependence: Conventional cotton farming is one of the most polluting in the world: it uses 11% of the world’s pesticides, 24% of the world's insecticides, but under 3% of the world's farmland.
- agrichemical use, air and water pollution, www.greenpeace.org/new-zealand
- child labour http://www.cleanclothes.org/
The logo or slogan may appeal, but where was the T-shirt or sweat shirt made, and of what material?
Clothing to die for – some facts and figures
- Cotton comprises 45% of all fibre use globally.
- Cotton is the most pesticide-intensive crop in the world
- The pesticides that farmers use to protect textile fibres as they grow can harm non-pest wildlife, contaminate other products and endanger the farm workers and their families.
- Some of these chemicals typically remain in the fabric after finishing, and are released during the lifetime of the garments.
- Bleaching and then dyeing - the resulting fabric carries more toxins.
- Almost all polyester-cotton mixes (especially bed linen) and all easy care, crease resistant, permanent press cotton, are treated with toxic formaldehyde; also used for flameproofing nylon.
- Nylon manufacture creates and releases nitrous oxide, a 'greenhouse gas' 300 times more potent at warming per molecule than carbon dioxide.
- Fibres from synthetic fabric garments detach during washing and exit with the rinsing water. Many end up in the oceans where they are collected by filter-feeding animals, although they have no food value. This pollution is now detectable globally.